Do you suffer from allergies? Millions of people around the world suffer from allergies, usually due to certain types of food, dust and pollen. Each time the immune system detects an allergen, it produces the corresponding antibodies to fight it, thereby causing the known nasty symptoms.
However, although most of our allergens are known, almost no one knows that drinking water also has its own share of responsibility for allergies. While we all acknowledge the importance of water to our body health and well-being, we often neglect its quality and, therefore, the installation of a reliable water filter.
So don't be surprised that research has shown that certain allergies and respiratory ailments are caused by the chemicals in tap water.
Chlorine, its derivatives and fluorine are widely used in water systems to disinfect water from dangerous pathogens, making it safe for consumption.
However, these substances, while disinfecting water, can be poisonous to human body. In many cases, the human body recognizes these chemicals in tap water as allergens and reacts to the potential danger.
Research has shown that these substances can worsen asthma symptoms, cause eye and skin irritation, and, in some cases, even bronchitis.
Anyone who has allergies knows that the symptoms are due to histamine, as its role is to trigger an immediate inflammatory reaction. But do you know how body hydration affects our levels of histamine?
In a dehydrated organism, the levels of histamine are increased in order to retain water and break it down in the body. So we understand that keeping our body hydrated with clean water daily helps strengthen it when dealing with allergies. In addition, we enhance the retention of moisture in our skin by actively contributing to the fight against atopic dermatitis.
It is no coincidence that people with skin allergies usually have dry and irritated skin. So moisturizing prevents dry skin and helps heal wounds and reduce itching.
If you and your family are suffering from allergies, then installing a tap water filter is a step you should take.
If you have eye and skin irritations and want to protect your skin's pH, then it is advisable to install a water filter to the shower as well.
Shower water filters snap easily to your faucet and allow you to pamper your skin with water free of harmful chemicals.
Installing a certified water filter enhances the health of your body and removes the harmful substances you unknowingly intake daily.
A simple yet useful device ensures that the whole family consumes healthy water daily. So are you still thinking about it? Contact us to discuss your needs and suggest the right solution for clean water.
We all know, and we shall all agree that water is essential to our health. However, how many of us have as a priority the consumption of clean water and, most of all, its adequate consumption? We are aware of the experts' advice on the amount of water we should drink, as well as of the importance of water filters, but at the fast pace we live, they probably end up being among the first things we neglect. Surely, you already know that the human body comprises 60% water. But do you know that the percentage of water in our brain reaches 85% and that in our blood reaches 90%?
The amount of water we should drink depends on a variety of factors, such as our age, physical activity, etc. But most of us only drink water if we feel thirsty, in other words, when we have already reached the point where our body begins to dehydrate. In addition, besides its limited consumption, we do not care about the quality of the water we drink. That's why the greek Primato water filters ensure that you will enjoy truly clean and tasty water in every glass. As for how much water you should drink, a quick read below will make you reconsider your attitude towards water consumption!
The benefits of water for health
Water is a synonym for health, with its quality being guaranteed only by reliable water filters. Adequate consumption of clean, filtered water has many different benefits for our body. Let's list the most important of them:
Over the past 50 years, advances in granular filter media water filtration have been achieved by using smaller mesh size sand combined with garnet or garnet/anthracite (multimedia) to achieve a nominal 12 to 15µ rating and to improve bed design and fluidics.
Nowadays, high purity zeolite media which achieves a <5µ nominal rating is available. Mineralogically, there are about 40 known types of natural zeolites (hydrated silicates) of which clinoptilolite is the most common. Clinoptilolite is classified as a crystalline, aluminum, silicon, oxide mineral that has a high porosity, high surface area, a micro-crystal structure, and is abrasion resistant.
Lab data indicates that zeolite outperforms conventional filtration media, including sand and anthracite, in its filtration and absorption capabilities. This is attributed to zeolite’s surface area, which is seven or eight times larger than many other granular materials.
The term zeolite was originally coined in 1756 by Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who observed that rapidly heating the material, believed to have been stilbite, produced large amounts of steam from water that had been adsorbed by the material. Based on this, he called the material zeolite, from the Greek ζέω (zéō), meaning "to boil" and λίθος (líthos), meaning "stone".
Zeolites are solids with a relatively open, three-dimensional crystal structure built from the elements aluminum, oxygen, and silicon, with alkali or alkaline-Earth metals (such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium) plus water molecules trapped in the gaps between them.
The most interesting thing about zeolites is their open, cage-like, "framework" structure and the way it can trap other molecules inside it. This is how water molecules and alkali or alkaline-Earth metal ions (positively charged atoms with too few electrons, sometimes called cations) become a part of zeolite crystals—although they don't necessarily remain there permanently. Zeolites can exchange other positively charged ions for the metal ions originally trapped inside them (technically this is known as cation exchange) and, as Cronstedt found over 250 years ago, they can gain or lose their water molecules very easily too (this is called reversible dehydration). Zeolites have regular openings in them of fixed size, which let small molecules pass straight through but trap larger ones; that's why they're sometimes referred to as molecular sieves. Unlike natural zeolites, which occur in random forms and mixed sizes, synthetic zeolites are manufactured in very precise and uniform sizes (typically from about 1μm to 1mm) to suit a particular application; in other words, they're made a certain size to trap molecules of a certain (smaller) size inside them.
Natural zeolite can be modified by single or combined treatment such as heating and chemical modification (acids, bases and inorganic salts). Chemical and thermal treatment of zeolite may result in cation migration and thus affect the cation location and pore opening. ”Pore engineering” is a popular term for methods used in zeolite modification in which some of its sorbent properties are manipulated. The processes of ion exchange and adsorption in zeolite/solution contact occur concurrently.
Thermal treatment at high temperature, depending on the solid sample and temperature used can enhance pore volume by removing water molecules and organics from pore channels. Water present in cages and channels of the zeolite framework contributes 10 – 25 % to the total mass of zeolites. To enable efficient use of zeolites in water treatment, it is important to know the properties of dehydration and structural stability of particular zeolitic materials.
The unique ion exchange and adsorption properties, high porosity, excellent thermal stability and cage-like structure of zeolites make them very suitable for many applications. One of the biggest everyday uses for zeolites is in water softeners and water filters. In ion-exchange water softeners, for example, hard water (rich in calcium and magnesium ions) is piped through a column filled with sodium-containing zeolites. The zeolites trap the calcium and magnesium ions and release sodium ions in their place, so the water becomes softer but richer in sodium. Many everyday laundry and dishwasher detergents contain zeolites to remove calcium and magnesium and soften water so they work more effectively.
Ammonia (NH3) and heavy metal cations are often found in water sources and pose serious health and environmental risks. Studies have determined that natural clinoptilolite zeolite is selective for these cations, meaning that it will absorb and bind them in its honeycomb structure even in the presence of larger amounts of competing cations. In addition, zeolite forms strong bonds with ammonia and heavy metals that are difficult to break. This prevents leaching of contaminants into the environment.
Zeolites adsorb a number of organic substances. The mineral has the largest affinity for polar organic components, for example chlorinated hydrocarbons. Depending on the diameter of the molecules, these are either adsorbed in the micro or mesopores. The capacity of the adsorption is strongly dependent on the circumstances at which the adsorption is performed.
As zeolites are a granular material, solid and suspended particles are trapped between the grains. The porous structure also causes colloid particles from both organic and mineral origin to be removed from the water. The capacity for the removal of solid particles is up to 45% greater than the capacity of sand with an equivalent particle size distribution.
To put it in a nutshell, the benefits of zeolite in water treatment and filtration include the following:
Main water sources
Thessaloniki needs in water are met by various sources, namely by the Aravissos and Axios aqueducts, after special treatment at the refinery located in the area of Sindos. The aqueducts in the areas of Narres, Sindos and Kalohori are not currently in use, but are fully operational and ready to cover any urgent needs of the population or as an alternative to failures or inadequacies of the key sources.
The springs of Aravissos, at the southern outskirts of Mount Paiko in Pella, supply the city of Thessaloniki with drinking water through the natural karstic cavity of the mountain, where the underground water outlet exits and watercourses end up. The water supply from these sources varies from 65,000 m3 to 130,000 m3 per day, depending on the annual snowfall and precipitation.
Aliakmonas and, in this case, the dam of its deflection near the village of Agia Varvara, situated approximately 40 kilometers from the estuary of the river, is the second main water suuply source of Thessaloniki. The water, through a free flow of 50 km, reaches Axios river and from there ends up in the Sindos refinery for processing. The clean, drinking water is gathered in a 75,000 m3 tank and is distributed through a 36 km pipeline network to various water tanks in Diavata, Evosmos, Polichni, Neapoli, Vlatades, Toumba and Kalamaria, as well as in the Industrial Area.
Kalochori: Boreholes in this area are not currently used for water supply, as the main sources sufficiently meet current needs.
Sindos: The 26 boreholes in the area provide 30,000 m3 of water per day.
Axios: The 46 boreholes in the wider area of the River Axios (Gefyra, Chalkidona, Eleousa and Agios Athanasios) provide about 70,000 m3 per day.
Narres: This water supply starts from the bed of the River Gallikos and ranges from 5,000 m3 to 25,000 m3 per day, but is currently inactive.
Agia Paraskevi: The aquifer in the area of Chortiatis is used as a complement to meet the needs of the particular Municipal Department and is a backup source of water supply to G. Papanikolaou Hospital.
Mikra - N. Rissio: The 6 boreholes in Eastern
Thessaloniki provide 4,500 m3 of water and supplement the Kalamaria
water tank daily, but are not currently used.
At the Water Treatment Plant of Thessaloniki in the Industrial Area of Sindos, 150,000 m3 of water undergo daily treatment and chlorination so that it is potable and safe for the population. Chlorine is the most cost-effective means of water decontamination in urban water supply systems worldwide. However, both chlorine and its spinoffs, such as chloroform, give water a distinct and unpleasant taste and odor.
In cases of repairs in the water supply system due to
accidental damage or permanent wear in specific pipelines (such as in
2018, when the local water supply network was damaged three times
within two months), the water is hyperchlorinated by adding more
chlorine to replenish the quantity that leaked out. As a result, the
drinking water that reaches several households in Thessaloniki
contains extra amounts of chlorine, which deteriorates its taste and
The purchase and installation of household water filters is an
immediate, safe and cost-effective solution to this problem.
Water supply network
The water is distributed in Thessaloniki through a pipeline and pumping network, which gives it a boost to reach every part of the city. However, this water supply network is quite old, with the problems due to its deterioration becoming noticeable in recent years. All citizens of Thessaloniki remember that, in March 2018, a part of the obsolete pipeline system broke, leaving a large proportion of the population without water for 5 days.
When the Aravissos water pipeline system was
completed in 1978, the manufacturers estimated its life expectancy
would be 40 years. However, these forecasts appear to be quite
optimistic and unreasonable as the pipeline is located at a depth of
3 meters and its length reaches 60 kilometers, which makes it
extremely difficult to maintain consistently and to restore the
damage promptly. If a part of the pipeline breaks or perforates, as
in March 2018, the exact point of the damage must be located, an
excavation must be made, the particular point must be isolated and
emptied out, resulting in the water supply being shut down, then it
must repaired or replaced and, finally, there is a waiting period
until the water is clean. Since the water supply network in
Thessaloniki is quite worn, it is very likely that events such as
those in 2018 will happen again and again.
Taking into account the need of the greek market for
quality water filtration systems, we began in 2018 to produce greek
devices in Thessaloniki, where the headquarters of our company are
located. Due to the wide range of these devices, we manage to meet
all our customers’ needs, both those who want to install a
countertop filter and those who need an under-sink filter.
Our filters are accompanied by a certificate of suitability for food contact for their plastic material (PP-polypropylene) and its color, as well as the material (TPE) and the color of the flange. The raw materials for the manufacturing of the device originate from Greece, Germany and the United Kingdom. Even the bases of all under-sink filters are manufactured in Thessaloniki from high quality stainless steel.
Each device that comes out of the mold is thoroughly checked by hand for any imperfections. In a second stage, during order preparation, water filters are re-checked to make sure they have not been damaged when shipped from the factory to our warehouses.
Before putting these devices on the market, we have been doing internal closed circuit pump tests for 3 months, as well as pressure tests up to 9 bar for 5 consecutive days. However, the pressure on greek urban water networks does not exceed 3 bar.
The devices are fully recyclable, engraved with the recycling symbol as well as the construction material, so that the processing companies know exactly how to recycle them. Of course, we are confident that these devices will accompany you throughout your life, so we offer a 10-year warranty!
In the following links, you can explore our exceptional water filters.
AquaCera® is an american company that has been a pioneer and major manufacturer of ceramic water filtration systems since 1989, exporting them all over the world. In all its products, it incorporates innovative ideas as well as the latest technologies, offering effective systems that reduce hazardous elements in drinking water, while improving its taste and smell. After extensive studies, the company combined activated carbon, which is used extensively in water filtration, with special minerals such as zeolite, creating patented and high quality materials of outstanding efficiency.
The use of ceramic materials as a means of water filtration dates back in 1800, when there were still no reliable sources of drinking water. Long-term research, current practices and progress in ceramic filtration systems led to more effective means of managing water contaminants and to the composition of CeraSyl®, an advanced ceramic material similar to porcelain, with tight porosity and soaked with silver, which has bacteriostatic properties that prevent mitosis and allow the filter to self-sterilize. Water filtration through CeraSyl® is absolutely reliable, with its benefits being summarized as follows:
Specially designed to provide you with high quality drinking water by filtering it through a single block, Aquametix® limits a large number of elements that contaminate water, with a negative effect on our health and home aesthetics. It comprises activated carbon and zeolite, creating a particularly compact and porous mesh that holds a wide range of harmful substances.
Activated charcoal is a natural product produced from peat, bamboo, charcoal, wood, sawdust, olive kernels, oil and coconut bark, with the latter being the most ecological and environmentally friendly. Its surface becomes extremely porous, since it is heated in a controlled environment and in a vacuum. These microscopic holes created are capable of expanding and, thus, increasing the carbon surface area from 500 to 1500 m2 / gr, which retains mutiple substances in both liquid and gaseous form.
Zeolite is a volcanic mineral with a significant amount of cliniptilolite, capable of retaining and eliminating heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum and excess iron, while maintaining healthy ions, metals and trace elements. In fact, its effectiveness is so intense that it can clean the nuclear waste from radioactive isotopes, and, besides water treatment industry, it is widely applied in environmental protection and agriculture. Its properties were discovered in 1756 by the Swedish mineralogist Axel Kronsted, who observed the large amount of steam produced by the water absorbed by stilbite when it quickly heats up.
The combination of the two patented materials gave us the most advanced and effective water filter currently in the international market. CeraMetix® basically consists of a resilient CeraSyl® ceramic shell and an Aquametix® core that reduces harmful substances such as aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chloramines, chlorine, cysts, fluorine, lead, mercury, nickel, radionuclides, trihalomethanes, volatile organic compounds and zinc.
Patented AquaCera® materials are available in Open Both Ends filters to match most commercial water filtration devices. In the following link, you can see the whole range of AquaCera® water filters and filters provided by Primato, the official distributor in Greece.
What is activated carbon
If you want to buy a water filter or if you already have one, you must have already heard of the term "activated carbon", as it is the main means of water filtering and treatment. Activated carbon is made from peat, bamboo, charcoal, wood, sawdust, olive kernels, oil and coconut shell, with the latter being the most ecological and environmentally friendly of all and used in the highest quality water filters.
Active carbon is basically charcoal that has been heated and oxidized in order to be activated and for the size of its pores to be increased. Thus, the first step into producing activated carbon from a coconut is to turn that coconut into charcoal. How is this achieved? With heat. A lot of heat.
Conversion into charcoal
However, we cannot just throw a coconut into the fire. Before heating the coconut, we have to empty it of its milk, scrape out its flesh and ensure that its shell is dry and, of course, clean. We also have to remove any fibers.
Once the shell is cleaned and dried, there are several ways to turn this hard and woody material into charcoal. The conversion process is called charring or pyrolysis. Essentially, the coconut shell must be exposed to very high temperatures (between 300 and 500 degrees Celsius) for several hours to turn into charcoal.
There are various methods of producing coconut carbon, with the most common being applied in a drum kiln, that is, in a special tank with a small chimney which creates higher internal temperatures by limiting the flow of oxygen. The bottom layer with the coconut shells in the kiln will first turn into carbon with a bright orange color. From the initial application of heat to this stage, it takes about 12 hours.
Afterwards, the air flow in the bottom layer of the drum is interrupted and the coals start to cool. This stage is called pacification and it is very important because, if the coal burns for a long time, it will turn into ashes. The shells must be collected at the right time during charring - neither long before nor after.
After the charring process, we are left with coconut charcoal, also known as coconut carbon. The next step is to activate this carbon in order to make it an effective water filter.
Activation with steam
As mentioned before, the purpose of activating carbon is to increase the size of its pores so that it can remove more particulates and contaminants. There are two ways of achieving this: either by soaking carbon into chemicals such as phosphoric acid or through a steam process.
An inert gas is brought to a temperature of about 800-1100 degrees Celsius in a rotary kiln, creating steam which actually dehydrates the charcoal. Again, we have to hit the right temperature: in higher temperatures, the charcoal starts to burn, whereas, in lower temperatures, the process takes far too long.
While coconut carbon is dehydrated by steam, its pores expand until they reach the perfect size. Finally, the activated carbon produced is crushed, graded and sorted into different sizes, depending on our needs. We can then make a granular activated carbon filter out of these crushed carbons or we can bind them with a special food grade glue and compress them into an activated carbon block.
The main and most significant problem in Thessaloniki is water and how harmful it is to our health. At the time when these lines were written (June 2018), the Thessaloniki network was disbanded for the third time since the beginning of the year, causing residents to experience intense water shortages. Those "lucky" few with water, they had watter which was dirty and full of mud. Last year (2017), oil balls appeared in the Kalochori aqueduct.
Chlorine that contains city water basically disinfects water from various pathogens, but we do not want it in our glass. This is because chlorine generates several byproducts, one of which is chloroform. It affects the odor and taste of water, which is also affected by other factors such as salts, soil, industrial waste, color, nitrates and various other substances contained in the water we drink. The solution is, of course, domestic water filters. Let's look at some filters that are suitable for the city of Thessaloniki:
Connect to your kitchen faucet easily and quickly in seconds and without the help of a plumber. It has NSF - USA certification.
With a turn of the switch you enjoy filtered, delicious and crystal clear water, or unfiltered water to wash dishes.
It is manufactured in the USA by the number 1 US company, WATTS WATER TECHNOLOGIES.
10 years warranty.
The Replacement Active Carbon Filter is made from the coconut crust!
This filter is suitable for most areas of the city. If you upgrade the replacement filter to PREMIUM LRC 0.5μm (able to remove lead) then you can also use it for the city center where the levels of lead are high.
It is English-made and prices range from 110 to 165 euros (if you choose the stainless one). It contains the Doulton UltraCarb replacement filter which reduces the harmful elements of water (eg chlorine, chemicals, lead etc.) and improves its odor and taste. It has NSF certification.
It is manufactured in England by the No1 company in Europe, DOULTON. Primato Hellas is the official distributor of these filters in Greece.
10 years warranty.
The ULTRA CARB replacement filter consists of ceramic material as well as solid activated carbon with a permeability of 0.5μm
Suitable for all areas of the city as well as the city center.
It is American-made and costs 80 euros. Reduces a large list of hazardous contaminants and chemicals and offers crystal clear water.
With a turn of the switch you enjoy filtered, delicious and crystal clear water, or unfiltered water to wash dishes.
10 years warranty.
Suitable for all areas of the city. If you upgrade the replacement filter to PRIMATO ULTRA PB you will also be able to use it in the city center as this filter is able to reduce lead.
In some areas of Thessaloniki the water contains enough soil (eg Pilea, Thermi, Kalamaria etc.). If you have soil in your area, then you should place a double filter (either above or below the bench). For example, we recommend this WATTS filter placed beneath your kitchen sink and connected to the cold tap water supply. This means practically that whenever you open your tap in the cold, the water will be filtered.
In the first stage, a solid filter reduces soil, sludge and rust. But it essentially protects the second stage from being blocked. So in the second stage you can put a narrower filter, such as the PREMIUM LRC with a 0.5μm permeability that can even reduce the lead. If you are upgrading to PREMIUM LRC in the second stage, then you can also use this filter for the city center. Otherwise, this filter is suitable for all areas of the city and especially for areas with dirt.
Of course, as with all the filters we have in our store, it comes with a 10 year warranty.
If you do not want to needlessly spend your filter as in the above case (where each time you open your faucet to cold water passes through the filter), you can place a filter under the bench but own separate faucet only for filtered water. You should of course make a small hole in your kitchen counter (just 1cm in diameter) to install it. The advantages of these filters are of course that the filter is only used for drinking water and not for dishwashing. This increases its lifespan.Typically, for the city of Thessaloniki, replacement filters change once a year if you have a separate plug. For example, we have listed this Doulton filter, but we have several other great filters in our store.
This filter is manufactured in England. It is placed beneath your kitchen counter and features a unique, exclusive faucet only for filtered water. It reduces the most "difficult" harmful substances, heavy metals and a large list of chemicals. It is ideal for the center of Thessaloniki and for areas with high levels of lead.
If you live in an area with plenty of soil in your tap water, then you would prefer a double under-sink filter to reduce soil in the first stage.
If you have any questions or need help, please do not hesitate to contact us at +30 2310 383 588. We will be glad to serve you!
We all use water daily, drinking water, cooking with water, cleaning with water, etc. So water is in our lives. Because of this, it is very reasonable to have encountered one or more water problems.
In this article we will mention the main problems that water has in Greece, how to recognize them and especially how to solve them.
The main problems facing water in Greece are bad taste & smell, salts, bacteria, soil and in some areas nitrate, lead and arsenic. So let's look at one by one:
BAD TASTE AND SMELL
The bad taste and smell of water is mainly caused by chlorine added to the water network to disinfect it. Chlorine is probably the cheapest solution to water disinfection and makes it safe for use by humans. Chlorine itself is not that innocuous, especially when we consume too many liters of chlorinated water. Chlorine, chloramines and chlorine derivatives such as chloroform, in addition to being harmful to humans, give the water the characteristic bad taste and smell we all recognize.
Taste and odours are caused by Chlorine / Chloramines and other chemicals which are added to mains water during municipal water treatment in order to disinfect it and keep it from picking up germs in transit.
The chemicals added during treatment are vital for keeping your water clean but they’re essentially the wrapping; they protect the product on its journey from the supplier to the customer. But when you get your shopping home, do you eat the packaging?
So while mains water taste and odour poses no major health risk, it can be unpleasant and often unwanted.
Taste and odours in water can obviously be identified by simply tasting and smelling your water. Chlorine levels in mains water are generally maintained at safe levels but if you want to test what levels of chlorine are in your water, chlorine test kits are available.
Bottled water is one solution to the problem of chlorine taste and odour but it is expensive (estimates put the cost per litre of bottled water in the UK anywhere between 48p to £3.40). It also makes little sense from an environmental standpoint: water is heavy stuff and the fossil fuels burnt carting it about in bottles means it will have acquired quite a carbon debt by the time you get it home.
A far better solution is to filter water at the point of use after it has already been transported by the water main. This method of obtaining clean, chlorine-free water is more cost efficient than a filter jug and is far more environmentally friendly and convenient than bottled water.
Water filtration systems from simple unobtrusive under-sink systems to larger commercial systems are available depending on your requirements. Either will reduce taste and odours in water for high quality drinking water and better tasting beverages.
Limescale (or scale to give it it’s short name) is the hard chalky deposit that forms when hard water is heated. It is predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium carbonate and it can range in colour from white to dirty brown.
It is commonly seen as a scum on tea, on the end of taps, in pipes and on the heating elements inside kettles and boilers. Once it has formed it is very hard to remove and requires the use of an acid descaler to dissolve it.
While there are no health risks from drinking hard water, the scale formed due to hard water will pose a risk to appliances and other water fed equipment.
The scale formation in any form of water boiler or water heating system will affect that system’s efficiency. According to British Water, just 1.6mm of scale in a heating system causes a 12% loss in heat transfer, which is a huge amount in these energy conscious times.
Scale formation in pipes is also a huge issue as it reduces the flow of water, meaning pumps have to work harder and can even lead to a complete blocking of the pipe over time.
Scale issues can also be extremely detrimental to catering equipment such as ice machines, coffee and espresso makers, steamers and dishwashers. Scale build up on the heating coils, evaporator plates or steam jets of these machines causes them to run inefficiently or, worse still, can cause maintenance problems and breakdowns.
Beyond water system efficiency and potential damage to appliance and equipment, the taste and appearance of a hot beverage can be affected; as the extraction of flavours may be altered with hard water and clear drinks may become cloudy or have a surface scum.
Speaking with your water / utility company is an easy way to find out the water hardness in your area. Alternatively, water hardness test strips can be obtained which allow you to ascertain how hard your water is.
If it is difficult to form lather with soaps, or you notice hard deposits on the end of taps then you’ve probably got hard water.
Another method of identifying if you have hard water is a water hardness map, which will give a general idea of which areas of the UK have hard water. However, it’s not exhaustive and there are always exceptions – for example, while the water in the North West of England is generally quite soft, in Southport the water is as hard as nails!
Preventing scale by filtering your water is far easier than trying to remove scale once it has formed. There are various techniques that are used and two of the most common are:
Reducing or slowing down the scale formation. This is typically done with phosphate dosing which acts to keep the hardness in the water and not on your pipework / heating elements. This can be done with a simple water filter which has a polyphosphate scale inhibitor.
Hardness Removal / Reduction:-
Ion exchange is one technique that can be used to reduce the levels of calcium and magnesium in the water. As the hardness is removed from the water its tendency to form scale is also reduced. This can be done with an ion exchange water filter, calcium treatment unit (CTU) or water softener.
Harmful forms of bacteria are rarely, if ever, present in mains water due to municipal water treatment. However, in some areas, such as Scotland, some residences rely on private water supplies such as bore-holes, wells or streams. As water from these sources is untreated and prone to contamination from external factors, the likely hood of harmful bacteria’s being present is much higher.
Bacteria contamination in water is potentially a serious risk to health and water which contains any trace of harmful bacteria should be treated or completely avoided. The health issues caused by outbreaks of E. coli and Legionella are well documented.
Usually in the event of mains water bacteria contamination, your water supplier will inform you however in exceptional circumstances or for private water supplies, low cost bacterial test kits are available and should give an idea of whether further investigation / treatment is required.
There are various options to remove bacteria from a water supply, two of the most common being ultra-fine mechanical filtration or ultra violet (U.V.) sterilisation.
To filter bacteria, an ultra-fine filter will be required, which usually comes in the form of a ceramic filter. Ceramic has a complex surface structure of pores which are so tiny that most bacteria cannot actually fit through! A good quality ceramic filter can remove 99.99% of pathogenic bacteria / cysts.
Ultra violet light destroys the cell DNA of micro-organisms rendering them inactive. So given the correct dose of UV light a UV steriliser system can be used to kill organisms such as viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa.
Particulate / Sediment
Particulate describes suspended solids in your water and generally falls into one of two categories: sediment and turbidity. Sediment can be sand, silt or rust while turbidity is the technical term for larger solids, such as leaves, twigs or even frogs! However, much like bacteria, particulate is rarely present in mains water but can be present in private water supplies.
While particulates themselves are not known to cause any adverse health effects, they can sometimes carry other harmful organic, inorganic and microbiological contaminants through drinking water systems.
Sediment in your water supply can have a number of detrimental effects on equipment. Over time it can have a sand blasting effect and damage equipment internals as well as potentially blocking up valves / pipework.
Sediment can also act as a masking agent, reducing the effectiveness of U.V. sterilisation by shielding bacteria or viruses from U.V. radiation as the water passes through the steriliser. It may also interfere with some water process applications.
Aside from the above it can impair the aesthetic qualities of water which may in turn affect the presentation of any products prepared using that water.
Though slow flow rates and blocked valves may be the result of sediment in your water supply, there are usually clear visual indications of sediment at any outlets and / or residues in your water or processed product.
If you think you may have a sediment issue you should consider the age of your distribution network (older networks being more prone to sediment problems) and also the source of your supply. Certain supplies, such as surface sources, suffer from sediment more than others.
The best way to remove sediment or turbidity is mechanical filtration. This can be done with sediment removal filters; from bag filters to micro filters and even ultra-filtration. An example low cost solution would be a water filter housing and a drop in sediment filter, with various types of filter available to achieve different levels of filtration.
The water filter is essentially a "shell" in which an activated carbon filter is usually placed. This replacement filter reduces harmful substances to the body. So when you choose where to install your filter (on the bench, under the counter or even in the kitchen tap), it remains to choose which or what replacement filters you will place inside. With this guide we hope to help you make the right choice for your area and the quality of your water.
In each water filter you see on our page you can change the replacement filter that we accompany it and choose one of the following parts:
PREMIUM CTO: Permeability 5 microns. The activated carbon in this filter is derived from coconut bark. It reduces chlorine, chloroform, suspended particles, sand and rust, sludge, soils, total organic carbon, industrial organic compounds (tetrachlorethylene, trichlorethylene), dissolved organic compounds, organic paint, dissolved iron, manganese and other harmful substances. It greatly improves the taste and smell of water. Suitable for most areas of Greece, Athens as well as Thessaloniki.
PREMIUM LRC: Narrow filtration at 0.5 microns. Special in reducing lead. It reduces chlorine, organic volatile compounds (VOCs), organic chemicals, unpleasant taste and odor, suspended particles, turbidity, sand, rust, sludge, soil, pesticides, herbicides, trihalomethanes, residual chlorine, total Organic carbon, organic organic compounds (tetrachlorethylene, trichlorethylene), dissolved organic compounds, organic paint, dissolved iron, manganese, industrial waste, alachlor, endrin, simazine, atrazine, ethylbenzene, styrene, benzene, ethylene dibromide (EDB), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbofuran, haloacetonitriles, tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, bromochloroacetonitrile, toluene, chlorobenzene, dibromoacetonitrile, 2,4,5-TP(silvex), chloropicrin, dichloroacetonitrile, tribromoacetic acid, 2,4-D, trichloroacetonitrile, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, dibromochloropropane (DBCP), haloketones, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, o-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, heptachlor, trihalomethanes (TTHM), 1,1-dichloroethylene, heptachlor epoxide, bromodichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobutadiene, bromoform, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, chlorodibromomethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, lindane, chloroform, cis-1,3-dichloropropylene, methoxychlor, xylenes, dinoseb, pentachlorophenol. It also reduces the heavy metals and lead. Suitable for most areas of Greece and especially for the historical center of Athens and the center of Thessaloniki where elevated levels of lead are an issue.
PREMIUM BCC: PREMIUM BCC is an amazing filter made of activated carbon from coconut bark. This is the most ecological solution for clean water. Its permeability is only 1 μm and can reduce chlorine, chloroform, pesticides, insecticides, and a large list of harmful substances and chemicals. It is impregnated with bacteriostatic silver that prevents the growth of bacteria. It offers delicious and clean water for the whole family. It is certified by NSF and WRAS to be sure of the quality of your water! Ideal filter for areas with intense bacterial load and of course for most areas of Greece.
PREMIUM UFC: Ultrafiltration technology using hollow fiber membranes changes the way we clean and process water around the world. Until a few years ago, this technology was so expensive that we only encountered it at very large water recycling plants. Now, after many years of research, this technology can be integrated into household water filters. This filter cleans the water in 2 stages. In the first stage the water is forced to pass from the solid activated carbon from coconut bark with a permeability of 10μm. In the second stage the water passes through the Hollow Fiber membranes with a permeability of 0.01 μm. PREMIUM UFC reduces an incredibly large list of contaminants such as chlorine, bacteria, viruses, colloids, etc. It fits most commercial devices. It has NSF certification. An amazing filter, ideal for most areas of Greece, especially where water is quite "difficult".
PRIMATO ULTRA CTO: Διαπερατότητα 5 μm (microns). It reduces chlorine, chloroform, suspended particles, sand and rust, sludge, soils, total organic carbon, industrial organic compounds (tetrachlorethylene, trichlorethylene), dissolved organic compounds, organic paint, dissolved iron, manganese, industrial waste and other Harmful substances. It greatly improves the taste and smell of water.
PRIMATO ULTRA VOC: Filters slightly more "narrow" than the Primato ULTRA CTO. It is special in reducing pesticides. Permeability 0.5 micron. It reduces chlorine, organic volatile compounds (VOCs), organic chemicals, unpleasant taste and odor, suspended particles, turbidity, sand, rust, sludge, soil, pesticides, herbicides, trihalomethanes, residual chlorine, total Organic carbon, organic organic compounds (tetrachlorethylene, trichlorethylene), dissolved organic compounds, organic paint, dissolved iron, manganese, industrial waste, alachlor, endrin, simazine, atrazine, ethylbenzene, styrene, benzene, ethylene dibromide (EDB), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbofuran, haloacetonitriles, tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, bromochloroacetonitrile, toluene, chlorobenzene, dibromoacetonitrile, 2,4,5-TP(silvex), chloropicrin, dichloroacetonitrile, tribromoacetic acid, 2,4-D, trichloroacetonitrile, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, dibromochloropropane (DBCP), haloketones, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, o-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, heptachlor, trihalomethanes (TTHM), 1,1-dichloroethylene, heptachlor epoxide, bromodichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobutadiene, bromoform, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, chlorodibromomethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, lindane, chloroform, cis-1,3-dichloropropylene, methoxychlor, xylenes, dinoseb, pentachlorophenol
PRIMATO ULTRA PB: Narrow filtration at 0.5 microns. Special in reducing lead. It reduces chlorine, organic volatile compounds (VOCs), organic chemicals, unpleasant taste and odor, suspended particles, turbidity, sand, rust, sludge, soil, pesticides, herbicides, trihalomethanes, residual chlorine, total Organic carbon, organic organic compounds (tetrachlorethylene, trichlorethylene), dissolved organic compounds, organic paint, dissolved iron, manganese, industrial waste, alachlor, endrin, simazine, atrazine, ethylbenzene, styrene, benzene, ethylene dibromide (EDB), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbofuran, haloacetonitriles, tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, bromochloroacetonitrile, toluene, chlorobenzene, dibromoacetonitrile, 2,4,5-TP(silvex), chloropicrin, dichloroacetonitrile, tribromoacetic acid, 2,4-D, trichloroacetonitrile, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, dibromochloropropane (DBCP), haloketones, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, o-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, heptachlor, trihalomethanes (TTHM), 1,1-dichloroethylene, heptachlor epoxide, bromodichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobutadiene, bromoform, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, chlorodibromomethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, lindane, chloroform, cis-1,3-dichloropropylene, methoxychlor, xylenes, dinoseb, pentachlorophenol. It also reduces the heavy metals and lead
PRIMATO CBR1: This replacement filter consists of 70% granular activated carbon and 30% of salt reduction resin. Ideal for areas with few salts. If you have plenty of salt, it is advisable to take a double filter. Reduces chlorine, chloroform, trihalomethanes, total organic carbon, industrial organic compounds (tetrachlorethylene, trichlorethylene), dissolved organic compounds, organic paint, dissolved iron, manganese, industrial waste, salts and many other harmful substances.
PRIMATO CBR2: It is made up of a special anionic nitrate reduction resin. Reduces nitrate in your water.
PRIMATO CBR3: This filter is made up of 50% active carbon that reduces harmful substances and improves the taste and smell of water and a 50% nitrate-reducing resin. If you have plenty of nitrate in your area, it is advisable to place a double water filter. It reduces chlorine, chloroform, suspended particles, sand and rust, sludge, soils, total organic carbon, industrial organic compounds (tetrachlorethylene, trichlorethylene), dissolved organic compounds, organic paint, dissolved iron, manganese, industrial waste, nitrates and other harmful substances. It greatly improves the taste and smell of water.
DOULTON ULTRA CARB IMPERIAL: It consists of ceramic (a material that is like porcelain) and compact activated carbon. It is manufactured in England and has an absolute permeability of 0.5 microns. Decrease of haze according to NSF 53: 98%
It reduces heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. Removal of bacteria (coliforms, cholera, chigelosis, typhoid, Klebsiella Terrigena): & gt; 99.99%, Cleavage (Cryptosporidiosis, Yarandis): & gt; 99.99%, trace removal of organic compounds, insecticides: & gt; 85%, Herbicides: & gt; 85%, Phenols: & gt; 50%, Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons: & gt; 95%, Trihalomethanes: & gt; 50%, removal of inorganic compounds, removal of free chlorine: & gt; 97%, NSF Standard Category 1 42, Lead Removal: 98.3% Standard NSF 53
DOULTON STERASYL: Permeability 0.2 μm (microns). It is made of high quality ceramic with impregnated bactericidal silver that prevents the growth of bacteria and microbes in water. Made in England. Reduces soil, sludge, rust, microparticles, Cryptosporidium (100%), bacteria, cysts, turbidity and a large list of contaminants. It protects the next stages of water filtration.
POLYPROPYLENE FILTER: Permeability 5 μm (microns). Reduces soil, sludge and rust. His main job is to protect the next stages of water filtration from clogging
SALT REDUCTION RESIN: It is made of high quality ion exchange resin that reduces the salts and hardness of your water.
In this article we'll try to explain what ultra filtration is and how it is applied through special hollow fiber membranes to clean and process water.
Water filters are housings into which we put cartridges made of compact and solid material (such as activated carbon block). Water is trying to penetrate this block which has tiny holes. The tinier the holes, the more substances stay out of the filter and your water. Apart from carbon block a cartridge can be made from polypropylene, wound and other materials.
The diameter of the holes is called "permeability" and is measured in microns symbolised with "μm". The smaller the permeability, the tighter the cartridge.
Water treatment technologies are separated in 5 main categories:
Particle filtration (1000μm - 10μm).
Whole house water filters belong to this category. We usually install these water filters in house's main water supply to filter out particles, rust and dirt. Their usual permeability is from 1000μm to 10μm. They are mostly made from polypropylene, wound and even plastic or inox net.
Microfiltration 10μm - 0.1μm
Most domestic water filters belong to this category. Activated carbon block is the most usual medium to reduce chlorine and most of the standard impurites we come across city's water. You can use a single carbon block cartridge or add more depending on your water's quality.
Ultra-filtration 0.1μm - 0.01μm .
Ultra Filtration technology, using Hollow Fiber membranes, changes the way we clean and process water all over the world. Large water treatment companies and water recycling plants are now using this method, mainly because in relation to reverse osmosis technology, Hollow Fiber membranes do not have to drain water to function. A few years ago, this technology was so expensive that we only encountered it at very large water recycling plants. But as technology progresses, it is getting cheaper, so that water filters, known water filters, can now be introduced into domestic water treatment systems. It can be used in a wide range of applications, where water is quite "problematic", such as camps, lakes, motor homes, etc. Of course, it can also be used for more "simple" uses such as water cleaning of cities. It removes chlorine, bacteria, viruses, colloids, Giardia, Crypto (commonly found in tanks and non-city water sources), suspended solids, turbidity, micro-organisms, TOC's etc.ς, τα κολλοειδή κ.α..
Nano-filtration (0.01μm - 0.001μm).
This technology is still very expensive for domestic users.
Reverse Osmosis (0.0001μm).
Reverse osmosis systems are the most advanced water purification systems available in the world. They offer you 100% Safe and Clean Water by allowing only water molecules to pass through their semi-permeable membrane. RO can filter our limescale, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals (including lead), nitrates, bacteria, cysts, chlorine, arsenic, industrial chemicals, sulfates and a wide list of chemicals. RO is placed under your kitchen sink, so you'll need to drill a hole on your kitchen counter (diameter 1cm) to install a tap which you'll use just for the filtered water.
We can measure water's hardness in german derees. We can also measure it in mg CaCO3/l or even in french degrees. We use an instrument called simply "hardness meter". Most of them measure hardness in german degrees. Check the table below:
If you live in Thessaloniki, Greece, have a look at this table:
|AREA IN THESSALONIKI||GERMAN DEGREES|
Now check out this table
|German degrees||Water is:|
|0-4 german degrees||Very soft|
|4-8 german degrees
|8-12 german degrees
|12-18 german degrees||Hard enough|
|18-30 german degrees||Hard|
|>30 german degrees||Very hard|
What can I do to reduce limescale and soften my water?
First of all you can install a whole house water filter with a polyphosphate cartridge that reduces limescale. You can put an ion exchange resin in this housing but i won't last as long as polyphosphate. But it will soften your water. The best solution though would be to install a water softener in your house's water main supply that soften all the water in your house.
Their name is pretty explenatory: They are installed to your house's main water supply and they improve your water's quality. Whole house water filters are housings, in which we place 4 kinds of cartridges: wound string, polypropylene cartridges, limescale reduction cartridges and activated carbon filters.
Wound string filters are the simplest of them all and they reduce sediment and rust. You will notice any pressure drop with these filters.
Polypropylene cartridges are "tighter" than wound string filters and they do a better job in reducing sediment and rust from your water. They clog faster though so they need to be replaced sooner.
Limescale reduction filters consist of two categories: cartridges with polyphosphate and cartridges with ion exchange resin. Polyphosphate cartridges reduce limescale but they don't soften your water. Ion exchange resin cartridges reduce limescale and soften your water but don't last as long as polyphosphate filters. If you have very hard water, you should consider buying a water softener.
Activated carbon filters reduce chlorine and a wide list of chemicals from your house's water but we strongly advise against placing an activated carbon filter to your main water supply. You need water to be chlorinated till it reaches your kitchen. Chlorine ensures you'll have safe and drinking water. Without it, water in your pipes will be vulneruble till it reaches your kitchen. So the best way to attack this problem is to allow water to be chlorinated all the way to your kitchen, where you should install a countertop or an under-sink water filter that can remove chlorine, its subproducts (like chloroform) and a wide list of harmful substances.
Wholse house water filters are tricky, because people usually forget about them and the need to replace their cartridges. This is very dangerous though, as they can clog (and as a result drop your water pressure) and fill with extremely dirty water (which eventually you drink or shower with). So if you think you're the kind of people that forget easily, please don't install a whole house water filter.
Countertop water filters are devices (housings) that are placed on your kithcen counter, right next to your sink and remove chlorine and a wide list of chemicals from your drinking water. Inside this housing, there is usually a carbon block cartridge that does all the dirty job of cleaning your water. This will only work if you switch the diverter (picture) to "filtered water". If you don't switch the diverter to "filtered" then you can use your tap as usual (cleaning the dishes etc). This diverter is connected to the water filter via a thin white tube, through which water passes and goes to the water filter. The countertop water filter then cleans the water and you can have clean water from the water filter's own tap.
Many people prefer to buy a countertop water filter because it's very easy to install them in just a few minutes. You don't even need a plumber to isntall a countertop water filter, all you need is one minute of spare time.
Cartridges are usually carbon block filters that need to be replaced at least once every year, depending of course on your water quality.
What you should look for:
About the housing: Your housing should be made of high quality materials and not some cheap recycled plastic that is only good for a very short period of time. The best plastics are made of PolyPropylene (PP for short). BPA's are plastics that are often found in food and water containers. Phthalates (usually in PVC products ) are linked to cancers, fertility problems, obesity and other problems. The problem with these plastics is that they leach into the food or liquid they're holding. PolyPropolene housings don't contain BPA's or Phthalates and are extremely safe.
About the cartridge: To choose the right cartridge, you should know your water's quality. If you just want to reduce chlorine and some chemicals, then you're fine with a 5μm permeability cartridge (permeability measures the diameter of the holes through which water passes. The smaller this number, the "tighter" the filter). If you need to attach problems such as heavy metals and lead, you should buy a 0.5μm carbon block that has the ability to reduce these substances. If you have more than one problems (eg bad taste and very hard water) you should buy a double water filter. Place a limescale reduction filter cartridge in the first stage and a carbon block in the second stage. Of course, if you need help in choosing the right water filter or cartridge, don't hesitate to contact us. We'll be very happy to help you!
This is a very common question for our greek customers so let's start from the very basics. In order for water to be considered safe, it must be chlorinated. Chlirine basically disinfects water from harmful substances (from which people was dying back in the old days...). Chlorine can't remove or "kill" some harmful substances or heavy metals such as lead, limescale, arsenic etc. In fact, chlorine itself as well as its byproducts (such as chloroform) is harmful. It still is however the cheapest solution for disinfecting water.
Athen's main problem is chlrone itself, except from its center where there are increased levels of lead. If your water doesn't have a very bad odor, then its main problem might be that it's not chlorinated.
The best solution is to have chlorine in our water up until our tap. Then, when it reaches your kitchen, you should treat it with a water filter with an activated carbon block which will remove chlorine and its byproducts.
Activated carbon is a black material, usually produced from coconut shell or even other recources and has the ability to "store" harmful substances in its tiny pores. Activated carbon has a special "soft spot" for chlorine and that's the reason we usually treat chlorine with activated carbon filters.
Water is forced to pass through the carbon block filter where it's cleaned and purified. After that you can enjoy clean and fresh water right from your tap!
Whether you install a countertop, a tap water filter or an under-sink water filter depends mainly on how much available space you have on or under your kitchen counter. Countertop water filters are installed in less than a minute on your kicthen counter and are connected to your kitchen tap with a "diverter" with which you toggle between filtered and unfiltered water. Tap water filters are installed directly on your kitchen tap and usually have a switch with which you toggle between standard tap water and purified water. Under sink water filters are placed under your kitchen sink and are connected either inline (directly to your kithcen tap's cold water supply) or with a seperate tap just for filtered water (in this case you'll need to pierce a tiny hole in your kitchen counter).
Should you need any help in choosing the right water filter for you, please don't hesitate to contact us, we'll be very happy to help you.
Tap water filters are the cheapest solution for clean and purified water. They connect right to your standard kitchen tap and they usually have a switch, with which you can select standard tap water or filtered water.
Most of them have activated carbon filters that reduces chlorine, chloroform and a wide list of chemicals. These cartridges must be replaced every few months dependin on the brand and water quality.
One the many advantages these water filters have is that they are very compact and easily installed. They do require some free space aroung your kitchen tap though and are not recommended if you have very short kitchen tap. If you have an old style shower-tap, then you can't install this tap filter for sure. Your only solutions would be to install an under-sink water filter.
Tap water filters can't usually treat extremely bad water quality problems such as heavy metals, lead, nitrates or limescale. If you wish to treat chemicals like these, then you should consider buying an under-sink water filter or even a reverse osmosis water treatment system.
There are many brands in the market, so if you need helping in choosing the right one for your home, please don't hesitate to contact us, we'll be very happy to help you!
In this article you'll read all the info you'll need before you buy an under-sink water filter. Water filters are actually housings, in which you place an activated carbon filter that reduces a bunch of harmful substances from your water. Depending on the quality and permeability of the carbon filter, these cartridges can reduce chlorine, heavy metals, Volatile organic chemicals etc.
First of all you need to decide if you need single, double or even triple filter. This depends of course on your water quality. If for example you only need to attack basic problems such as chlorine and bad taste and odor, then you should buy a single water filter. If you also have another problem such as hard water, then you should buy a double water filter (place a limescale reduction filter in the first stage and a carbon block in the second stage). For each problem you should add a housing. If for example you have bad taste and odor, hard water and nitrates, then you should buy a triple water filter - place a nitrates reduction filter in the first stage, a limescale reduction filter in the second stage and a carbon block in the third stage.
If you have more than 3 problems, then you should consider buying a reverse osmosis system. Reverse osmosis ( RO for short) is probably the best water treatment solution today. It produces water with zero conductivity, absolutely free of chemicals and limescale.
What's next? After you've decided how many housings you need (single, double or triple water filter), you now have to decide whether you need a seperate tap just for filtered water or an inline installation. Under sink water filters can be connected in 2 ways:
If you feel we haven't covered your questions, please don't hesitate to contact us. We'll be very happy to help you!
Before I explain what Reverse Osmosis is (RO for short), I should probably explain what osmosis is. Put simply, osmosis is when solvent molecules (eg water) pass through a semi-permeable membrane to a solution or from a thinner solution to a denser solution. Semi permeable membrane (or RO membrane) allows solvent molecules to pass through (and nothing else).
By the way, osmosis comes from the ancient greek word ὠθῶ, which translates to "push".
To better explain osmosis, let's use this picture where you can see 2 solutions seperated by a semi permeable membrane.
Let's assume that the solution (in blue color) is sugar and has a concentration C (keep in mind that sugar is dissolved in water). On the left side A ( greek: Πλευρά Α) we have pure solvent (water) with a concentration C=0. Since this membrane allows only solvent molecules to pass through, only pure water will pass through the membrane (from the left side to the right side - pure water will pass from the left side to the sugar side). Also, any pure water molecules present in the sugar will pass from the right side to the left side. So far so good? Now, since pure water can pass through both sides, eventually these concentrations will be equal. This is called Osmosis.
Now let's try to explain Reverse Osmosis. If we apply pressure to the right side (the sugar - blue color) then only the pure water in the sugar will pass to the left side. So we have one way movement, from right to left, from the sugar to the left side. This is called reverse osmosis.
In RO water treatment systems, dirty water is trying to pass from the right side to the left side. Since only pure water molecules can pass through the membrane, dirty water will be discarded and pure water will pass through to the left side (your glass or the RO tank) so that you can drink it! Got it?
Until now, RO is the best technology has to offer in water treatment and desalination. Many islands in the world use RO technology to get pure water from the sea.
Have a look at the picture below (sorry for the greek...). This is how desalination works: sea water is on the right side. We apply pressure to the sea water which is then forced to pass through the membrane to the left side. The "dirty" water in this situation in this case may be used to extract salt or left in the sea (it is sea water after all...).
Saudi Arabia has the biggest desalination plant in the world using reverse osmosis water treatment. 50% of the country's drinking water is produced this way. Santa Barbara (USA) has a working RO plant since 1992, capable of producing 30400 m3 drinking water per day. Of course in a smaller scale, there are the domestic RO water filters (which you can find in our website) capable of producing extremely pure water for your family's needs.
Domestic reverse osmosis filters usually consist of 5 stages. In the first stage (transparent housing on the right), there is a polypropylene filter that reduces sediment and rust. Its main job is to protect the next stages from clogging. In the second stage there is a 5μm carbon block that reduces chemicals and harmful substances. In the third stage there is a 0.5μm carbon block that reduces an even wider list of chemicals and heavy metals. These carbon blocks protect the membrane from the chemicals (chemicals destroy the membrane).
After passing through the first 3 staes of filtration, water is then forced to pass through the RO membrane. Dirty water is discarded and pure water is stored in the tank. When you switch your tap on, water passes from the tank through the 5th stage to your glass. 5th stage is usually an activated carbon filter made from coconut shell. It is used to "refine" your water's taste and odor, since RO water is completely tasteless.
You can add a mineral filter as a 6th stage that enhances the water with minerals or even a UV light. Keep in mind that this is the correct RO set up:
1st stage: Polypropylene filter
2nd stage: 5μm carbon block
3rd stage: 0.5 carbon block that can reduce heavy metals
4th stage: RO membrane
5th stage: Activated carbon filter from coconut shell
Some times we see wrong set ups. A wrong set up can be:
1st stage: Polypropylene filter
2nd stage: carbon block or granural activated carbon
3rd stage: Polypropylene filter
This is wrong!! RO membrane doesn't have a problem with sediment, since "dirty water" will be discarded. It has a problem with chemicals. Chemicals can destroy the membrane and that's the reason the correct set up needs to have 2 carbon blocks as pre filters. If you have a correct set up then you will be replacing your ro membrane every 2 years (and not sooner). If your pre filters are of good quality then you should replace them once every year (and not sooner)
If we haven't covered your RO questions, please don't hesitate to contact us. We'll be very happy to help you! Check out our available water filter systems for sale here
Primato supports World Water Day
Water, human's life source is divided unevenly in our planet.
World water day was established in 1992 by United nations, aknowledging its importance for man kind. Primato is trying to treat tap water and make it safe. Thats why we offer a 10% discount in all our water filters shown in our website. Just use coupon code WORLDWATERDAY to get your discount.
Our love for water doesn't stop at water filters! We proudly announce that we have recently become "It's Sailin Time's" sponsors! This yaught club is in Thessaloniki, Greece and is the perfect spot if you want to take sailing, windsurf and SUP lessons!
Sailing Time yaught club takes part in many sailing races around Greece such as Athens, Thessaloniki, Skiathos, Ioannina and many more.
Primato and our premium water filters will be on Sailing Time's brand new Laser SB3 boats, taking part and supporting many more races to come!
Activated carbon has various applications, from gas masks and kitchen appliances to drugs and poisons. Its main use though is water purification, as it has spectacular absorbing and filtering capabilities.
Activated carbon, either in the form of granular, i.e. pulverized activated carbon or activated carbon block, filters water from a wide list of harmful substances. Activated carbon achieves impressive success rates, filtering out chemicals.
It is an odorless, tasteless, delicate substance that is a 100% natural product. This non-toxic black powder is made from bamboo, charcoal, sawdust, coconut shell, olive kernel and oil. Activated carbon is heated in a controlled environment using special methods. Through this proccess it acquires a very porous surface, which is capable of increasing its area from 500 to 1,500 m2 / g, and absorbing various kinds of organisms.
The use of carbon in everyday life goes back thousands of years, although its discovery is uncertain. Ancient Indians used carbon to clean their water, while the Egyptians used to detoxigy their body with carbon before 1500 BC. Ancient Greek Hippocrates (Father of Medicine) included carbon in his medical treatments.
Carbon was made known thanks to the French chemist Pierre Fleurus Touery. In 1831 he made a demonstration at the French Medical Academy, which left an impression: He consumed 10 times more strychnine than the allowed limit if front of many peiple. And yet, nothing happened to Touery. That's because, before Strychnine, he drank - as he explained to his bereaved colleagues - about 15 grams of carbon!
George Margiolos was born in Thessaloniki and has graduated from the Department of Marketing of the Alexandreio Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. He is fluent in English and (not so fluent) in German.
Ηe has been Project Manager at Avery Dennison - Fastener Division in the UK. There, his main project was to redesign the company's products into new applications so as to become more environmentally friendly. In combination with the fact that in the UK people are more familiar with water filters, he has developed a love for environmentally friendly water filters, which reduce the use of plastic bottles and improving people's quality of life.
Since 2008, he has published over 300 unique educational and informative articles on water filters and new water treatment technologies.
Occasionally, universities and doctoral students request to use George Margiolos' articles in their research because of their quality and uniqueness.